Donetsk Донецк Донецьк  rel=

The history of the city of Donetsk

In the XVII century on the territory of the future city of Donetsk Cossacks of Zaporizhia founded sloboodyes Oleksandrivka Alekseevka, Avdotyino, Grigorievka and hutor Ovechij. Their inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, along with "digging coal" settlement Living settlements engaged in farming and "digging coal (fuel stone) for local needs.

Карта Донецкого края в XVII в. At 1696g. Peter I saw of fuel a stone when returning from the Azov campaign and he belongs to the prophetic statement: "This mineral, if not us, then to our descendants will be useful very".

Close Bakhmut (Artyomovsk) coal have been mined since 1724, 150 miners were working, the coal was going to forge the salt plant.

Study of the Donetsk coal basin was conducted by mining engineers Tsarist Russia since the time of Peter I.

Mining engineer E.P. Kovalevsky put the term "Donetsk ridge" and in 1829 gave a description of the Donetsk coal basin, covering an area of 18 thousand miles and created the first geological map of the territory.

At the upper river Kalmius, where now lies the town of Donetsk, the significant deposits of coal have been found and a small mines appeared at the beginning of XIX century there. In 1841, earned the first large Alexander's mine.

The official date of birth of the city of Donetsk is summer of 1869, when the construction of steelworks was beginning. For the construction of metallurgical plant was established Novorossiysk's partnership. Director and founder of the Novorossiysk's partnership was the Englishman John Hughes (years of life - 1814-1889).

Coal and river water were close, iron ore - not far too, in the Karakuba, stone-limestone - near the village Yelenovka. Therefore, the founders of the Novorossiysk Society of coal, iron and rail production and society railroad from line of Harkov-Azovchosen this place for the construction of steelworks.

John Hughes made a contract with the government of Tsarist Russia on the formation of Novorossiysk Society of coal, iron and rail production and in the summer of 1869 arrived on the banks of the river Kalmius with four sons and built a forge for the manufacture of small equipment and tools for future plant. The Forge was the first auxiliary shop of the plant.

Near the construction site there was a settlement, which merged with the miner's village of Alexander the mine. This settlment have been named Yuzivka by the name of the business manager of the Englishman John Hughes.

In the summer of 1870 from Britain in the Ukraine ships equipment and tools have arrived for the steel works of John Hughes at the eight cargo . Also came about hundred of specialists - metallurgists and miners from South Wales.

John Hughes began to melt already in 1870. But really good results achieved in 1872, when the first blast furnace given pig iron. In September 1873 Yuzovsky plant began working on the complete cycle. The factory started to bring profit in ten years.

In 1872 the movement began on the railway line Kostiantynivka - Yasinovataya - Yuzivka - Yelenovka, later to Mariupol. It connected the factory and the mines with main line of Donbass, this caused the rise of industrial production. The engineering and ironworks, repair shops, and mines have been build.

In 1899 during the industrial boom in the south of Russia consists of 17 steel companies, among them the factory of Hughes, which was called Novorossiysk association of coal, iron and rail production, was the largest.

In 1899, metallurgical production was 17,7 million tons of pig iron, the plant employed more than 7 thousand people. On the territory of the village acted 9 mines, where labor about 2 thousand workers per year were produced 99,2 million tons of coal. Stations Hughes, Mandrykin, Rutchenkovo, Mushketov, Share connected mines and factories to the central regions of Russia.

The population of Yuzovka increased. In 1884 there were 5494 people and in 1897 there were already more than 23 thousand people. Yuzivka divided into two parts: the south - the production part, and the north. In the southern part of the factory the buildings , depot, hospital, school, telegraph were located. Near well-settled English colony with cobbled streets, pavements and electricity was. In the northern part Yuzovka - New World - on the site of today's Central Department Store has been operating a settlement with one-storied buildings, barracks, taverns, hotel "Britain" and the bazaar. In the northern part was built as the Savior Transfiguration Cathedral. The workers lived in barracks next to the plant and mines.

The hotel "Britain" was built in 1883 In 1891 a two-story hotel building have been added the third floor. Hotel operates now.

In May 1917 in the settlement Yuzivka there were about 70 thousand residentswere and Yzivkf have been received the status of the town.

In January 1918, the nationalization of enterprises of Novorossiysk partnership began . January 3, 1920 Soviet power finally established in the city .

In the summer of 1920 Donetsk province have been introduced by the division of into districts, and in December 1920 - into counties. Yuzivka became the chief town of a uyezd. Lugansk was principal town of a province at first, and later Bakhmut (Artemovsk).

March 8, 1924 at the plenum Yuzovsky executive committee had decided to rename the town Yuzovka in Stalin, Yuzovsky district - the Stalin: "The Board believes that the symbol that characterizes our great leader comrade. Lenin - would be "Steel" and decided to name Yuzovka city - the city of Stalin, and Stalin's district and the plant.
 

Since 1924 the city became known as Stalin, railway station - Stalin. In 1929-1931 the town was renamed in Stalino. In July 1932 the city became the center of Donetsk region.

In 1938, the Donetsk region divided by Voroshilovgrad's and Stalin's region. City Stalino (now Donetsk) has become the center of Stalin's region.

The city Stalin received the name of Donetsk in 1961. In April 1978, the population of the city were over 1 million.

By the beginning of the 70 in the city undertook a great program of gardening, conceived in the 50-s of the first secretary of the provincial party committee, Vladimir Degtyaryov. In the 70-80 city of Donetsk city was called a million roses.
 


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